We publish research on
eliminating humans from music
neural synthesis

Generating Black Metal and Math Rock: Beyond Bach, Beethoven, and Beatles (2017)

Machine Learning for Creativity @ NIPS 2017

We use a modified SampleRNN architecture to generate music in modern genres such as black metal and math rock. Unlike MIDI and symbolic models, SampleRNN generates raw audio in the time domain. This requirement becomes increasingly important in modern music styles where timbre and space are used compositionally. Long developmental compositions with rapid transitions between sections are possible by increasing the depth of the network beyond the number used for speech datasets. We are delighted by the unique characteristic artifacts of neural synthesis.

Generating Albums with SampleRNN to Imitate Metal, Rock, and Punk Bands (2018)

Music Metacreation @ International Conference on Computational Creativity 2018

This early example of neural synthesis is a proof-of-concept for how machine learning can drive new types of music software. Creating music can be as simple as specifying a set of music influences on which a model trains. We demonstrate a method for generating albums that imitate bands in experimental music genres previously unrealized by traditional synthesis techniques (e.g. additive, subtractive, FM, granular, concatenative). Raw audio is generated autoregressively in the time-domain using an unconditional SampleRNN. We create six albums this way. Artwork and song titles are also generated using materials from the original artists' back catalog as training data. We try a fully-automated method and a human-curated method. We discuss its potential for machine-assisted production.

Curating Generative Raw Audio Music with D.O.M.E. (2019)

MILC workshop at ACM Intelligent User Interfaces 2019

With the creation of neural synthesis systems which output raw audio, it has become possible to generate dozens of hours of music. While not a perfect imitation of the original training data, the qual- ity of neural synthesis can provide an artist with many variations of musical ideas. However, it is tedious for an artist to explore the full musical range and select interesting material when searching through the output. We needed a faster human curation tool, and we built it. DOME is the Disproportionately-Oversized Music Explorer. A PCA-component k-means-clustered rasterfairy-quantized t-SNE grid is used to navigate clusters of similar audio clips. The color mapping of spectral and chroma data assist the user by enriching the visual representation with meaningful features. Care is taken in the visualizations to aid the user in quickly developing an intuition for the similarity and range of sound in the rendered audio. This turns the time consuming task of previewing hours of audio into something which can be done at a glance.

DadaGP: A Dataset of Tokenized GuitarPro Songs for Sequence Models (2021)

ISMIR 2021

Originating in the Renaissance and burgeoning in the digital era, tablatures are a commonly used music notation system which provides explicit representations of instrument fingerings rather than pitches. GuitarPro has established itself as a widely used tablature format and software enabling musicians to edit and share songs for musical practice, learning, and composition. In this work, we present DadaGP, a new symbolic music dataset comprising 26,181 song scores in the GuitarPro format covering 739 musical genres, along with an accompanying tokenized format well-suited for generative sequence models such as the Transformer. The tokenized format is inspired by event-based MIDI encodings, often used in symbolic music generation models. The dataset is released with an encoder/decoder which converts GuitarPro files to tokens and back. We present results of a use case in which DadaGP is used to train a Transformer-based model to generate new songs in GuitarPro format. We discuss other relevant use cases for the dataset (guitar-bass transcription, music style transfer and artist/genre classification) as well as ethical implications. DadaGP opens up the possibility to train GuitarPro score generators, fine-tune models on custom data, create new styles of music, AI-powered songwriting apps, and human-AI improvisation.

ProgGP: From GuitarPro Tablature Neural Generation To Progressive Metal Production (2023)

Queen Mary University, CMMR 2023

Recent work in the field of symbolic music generation has shown value in using a tokenization based on the GuitarPro format, a symbolic representation supporting guitar expressive attributes, as an input and output representation. We extend this work by fine-tuning a pre-trained Transformer model on ProgGP, a custom dataset of 173 progressive metal songs, for the purposes of creating compositions from that genre through a human-AI partnership. Our model is able to generate multiple guitar, bass guitar, drums, piano and orchestral parts. We examine the validity of the generated music using a mixed methods approach by combining quantitative analyses following a computational musicology paradigm and qualitative analyses following a practice-based research paradigm. Finally, we demonstrate the value of the model by using it as a tool to create a progressive metal song, fully produced and mixed by a human metal producer based on AI-generated music.

ShredGP: Guitarist Style-Conditioned Tablature Generation (2023)

Queen Mary University, CMMR 2023

GuitarPro format tablatures are a type of digital music notation that encapsulates information about guitar playing techniques and fingerings. We introduce ShredGP, a GuitarPro tablature generative Transformer-based model conditioned to imitate the style of four distinct iconic electric guitarists. In order to assess the idiosyncrasies of each guitar player, we adopt a computational musicology methodology by analysing features computed from the tokens yielded by the DadaGP encoding scheme. Statistical analyses of the features evidence significant differences between the four guitarists. We trained two variants of the ShredGP model, one using a multi-instrument corpus, the other using solo guitar data. We present a BERT-based model for guitar player classification and use it to evaluate the generated examples. Overall, results from the classifier show that ShredGP is able to generate content congruent with the style of the targeted guitar player. Finally, we reflect on prospective applications for ShredGP for human-AI music interaction.

GTR-CTRL: Instrument and Genre Conditioning for Guitar-Focused Music Generation with Transformers (2023)

Queen Mary University, EvoMUSART 2023

Recently, symbolic music generation with deep learning techniques has witnessed steady improvements. Most works on this topic focus on MIDI representations, but less attention has been paid to symbolic music generation using guitar tablatures (tabs) which can be used to encode multiple instruments. Tabs include information on expressive techniques and fingerings for fretted string instruments in addition to rhythm and pitch. In this work, we use the DadaGP dataset for guitar tab music generation, a corpus of over 26k songs in GuitarPro and token formats. We introduce methods to condition a Transformer-XL deep learning model to generate guitar tabs (GTR-CTRL) based on desired instrumentation (inst-CTRL) and genre (genre-CTRL). Special control tokens are appended at the beginning of each song in the training corpus. We assess the performance of the model with and without conditioning. We propose instrument presence metrics to assess the inst-CTRL model's response to a given instrumentation prompt. We trained a BERT model for downstream genre classification and used it to assess the results obtained with the genre-CTRL model. Statistical analyses evidence significant differences between the conditioned and unconditioned models. Overall, results indicate that the GTR-CTRL methods provide more flexibility and control for guitar-focused symbolic music generation than an unconditioned model.

Fast Timing-Conditioned Latent Audio Diffusion (2024)


Generating long-form 44.1kHz stereo audio from text prompts can be computationally demanding. Further, most previous works do not tackle that music and sound effects naturally vary in their duration. Our research focuses on the efficient generation of long-form, variable-length stereo music and sounds at 44.1kHz using text prompts with a generative model. Stable Audio is based on latent diffusion, with its latent defined by a fully-convolutional variational autoencoder. It is conditioned on text prompts as well as timing embeddings, allowing for fine control over both the content and length of the generated music and sounds. Stable Audio is capable of rendering stereo signals of up to 95 sec at 44.1kHz in 8 sec on an A100 GPU. Despite its compute efficiency and fast inference, it is one of the best in two public text-to-music and -audio benchmarks and, differently from state-of-the-art models, can generate music with structure and stereo sounds.

Long-form music generation with latent diffusion (2024)


Audio-based generative models for music have seen great strides recently, but so far have not managed to produce full-length music tracks with coherent musical structure. We show that by training a generative model on long temporal contexts it is possible to produce long-form music of up to 4m45s. Our model consists of a diffusion-transformer operating on a highly downsampled continuous latent representation (latent rate of 21.5Hz). It obtains state-of-the-art generations according to metrics on audio quality and prompt alignment, and subjective tests reveal that it produces full-length music with coherent structure.


Stable Audio Tools (2023)

Training and inference code for latent diffusion audio generation models. The latest and greatest. It's especially good at high fidelity electronic music. We can generate 3 minute songs in 10 seconds. A web app is available here

DadaGP (2020)

Encoder/decoder to convert GuitarPro files into a token sequence for LMs. Comes w/ a dataset. This is what random tokens sound like.

Dadabots-modified SampleRNN (2017)

Unconditional LSTM model originally for speech synthesis, improved for generating music. Since it's from 2017 and runs in theano, it's kind of outdated and difficult to install, but holds a special place in our hearts. It takes an hour to generate 1 minute, but even with 16GB VRAM you can crank the batch size to 100, thereby enabling generative livestreams via parallelization though with long latency. It's especially good at black metal, mathcore, and solo instruments